Soudan Coup a Threat to Regional Instability: Global Concern and Outrage
Even before Sudan gained independence from the British Empire in 1956, the civil war was unfolding between the north and the south.
Sudan, as it is known now, was a British colony for the first half of the 20th century. Even before Sudan gained independence from the British Empire in 1956, the civil war was unfolding between the north and the south. Military coups in 1958 and 1969, as well as civil conflict, hampered efforts to establish a parliamentary democracy.
Beginning in 1983, the Sudan People's Liberation Army led insurgencies in the south, an area populated by Animists and Christians. The civil war began in 1983 when the military regime attempted to impose sharia law as part of a larger plan to "Islamize" Sudan.
The fact that there were two Sudan historically: an Arab, Muslim north, and African south, is one of the main causes of the country's civil conflicts. Modern Sudan, despite being patched together throughout the colonial era, came apart a year before independence and spent most of its history at war. While most of the conflict is about political sovereignty and access to the South's vast oil reserves, it is also about ethnic and religious identity, as well as what it means to be a fully enfranchised citizen. The introduction of sharia law at the national level in the mid-1980s exacerbated the divisions, resulting in one of the bloodiest wars in history. (Berkley Center, 2013)
In 2019 In a military coup, Bashir is deposed. Troops in Khartoum attack pro-democracy protesters, killing at least 100 people. A power-sharing agreement has been announced by Sudan's military leadership and the country's pro-democracy movement. Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok leads a new government. Bashir is sentenced to two years in prison after being found guilty of corruption and unlawful possession of foreign funds in December 2019. The trial of Omar Bashir for his role in the 1989 coup d'etat began in July 2020 (Tayyaba, 2021).
Sudan has sought to gradually remove itself from the international pariah status it had under the al-Bashir dictatorship. However, the country's economy has been hit hard by a series of economic reforms mandated by international financial institutions.
In 2021 The Sudanese administration has stated that Bashir will be handed over to the International Criminal Court. An attempted coup by Bashir's supporters fails. Sudan's ruling council and transitional government are abolished, and the military announces a state of emergency (CNN, 2021).
Regional Instability and Global Outrage
Since an attempted coup on Sept. 21, tensions in Sudan have been rising, with supporters of pro-military and pro-civilian leadership battling for power. Furthermore, after refusing to support the coup, Hamdok and other government officials were moved to an undisclosed location. The coup has jeopardized the country's democratic transition, endangering international donor support and IMF debt relief, and, ultimately, threatening the country's economic recovery.
Sudan is bordered on the north by Egypt and on the south by Ethiopia and Eritrea. In the northwest, it shares a border with Libya, and in the northeast, it stretches to the Red Sea, which Saudi Arabia shares. The country is strategically significant for the Horn of Africa, North Africa, and the Sahel. The United States, "Israel", and Russia were among the allies.
Significantly, a coup in Sudan has sparked widespread international condemnation, amid growing concerns over the country's democratic transition and economy. The coup may have far-reaching consequences for the country and abroad. All Sudanese political leaders must be released, according to the African Union and president of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki, "Dialogue and consensus are the only valid ways to salvage the country and its democratic transition".
The US, the UK, and Norway unanimously condemned the coup and demanded security forces to release wrongfully arrested government personnel. Notably, the supply of emergency economic aid to Sudan has also been halted by the US. The aid package has been put on hold until an assessment of the developments in Khartoum Sudan, according to State Department spokesperson Ned Price. The funds, which were provided in the form of direct financial assistance, were meant to aid the country's transition to a completely civilian government.
Most importantly, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Norway, and Estonia have requested an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council to discuss the coup in Sudan. The European Union and numerous member states have also urged for the development of people who have been illegally detained. The United Nations High Commissioner, Michelle Bachelet, cautioned that Sudan might regress, urged the military to release the officials, withdraw from the streets, and engage in dialogue (CNBC & Euronews, 2021).